Bowser (クッパ, Kuppa, "Koopa"), also known as King Bowser or King Koopa, is a fictional character and the primary antagonist in Nintendo's Mario franchise. In Japan, his title is Daimaō (大魔王, "Great Demon King"). He is the arch-nemesis of the plumber Mario, and the leader of the turtle-like Koopa race. Bowser's defining traits are his monstrous appearance with dragon-like elements, full-throated roar, fire-breathing abilities, and tyrannical personality. His ultimate goals are to kidnap Princess Peach and conquer the Mushroom Kingdom.
Bowser debuted as Mario's opponent in the 1985 video game Super Mario Bros. Designer Shigeru Miyamoto had first conceived an ox based on the Ox-King from the Toei Animation film Alakazam the Great, but Takashi Tezuka remarked that the character looked more like a turtle than an ox, and the two collaborated to refine Bowser's appearance into the leader of the turtle-like Koopas. Bowser's voice actor is Kenneth W. James. His previous voice actors include Scott Burns, who spoke Bowser's first dialogue in a video game, and Eric Newsome, who voiced him in Super Paper Mario.
After Super Mario Bros., Bowser branched into different genres including role-playing games Paper Mario and Mario & Luigi, sports games Mario Kart and Mario Tennis, and fighting games Super Smash Bros.. He appeared in various animations, including three series produced by DIC Entertainment (all voiced by Harvey Atkin), and was portrayed by Dennis Hopper in the 1993 Super Mario Bros. film. He was voiced by Jack Black in The Super Mario Bros. Movie (2023).
Bowser has received a mostly positive reception, with several critics noting that he is one of the most iconic and most recognizable video game villains ever.

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