CIVILIZATION 2 Instruction Manual

Civilization II

--- An I.f.L.a.b. document ---

(X) = X Button
(C) = Circle Button
(S) = Square Button
(T) = Triangle Button


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Starting Up .........................................2
Game Controls .......................................3
Introduction ........................................4
Before You Play .....................................4
Getting Started .....................................4
Menus .............................................5
Explanation of Menu Options .......................5
Civilopedia .......................................5
Game Menu .........................................6
Kingdom Menu ......................................6
Advisors Menu .....................................6
World Menu ........................................7
Civilopedia Menu ..................................7
Commands for Settlers and Engineers Units .........8
How to Get Help in the Game .......................8
Playing the Game (Basic Steps) ......................9
1. Set Up Your World ..............................9
2. Build the First City ...........................9
3. Manage Your City ..............................10
4. Build the First Unit ..........................10
5. Defend Your City ..............................10
6. Choose Your First Civilization Advance ........11
7. Set Up Tax Levels and Distribution of Revenue .11
8. Explore Your World ............................11
9. Establish Diplomatic Relations With
Neighboring Civilizations .....................12
10. Improve Your Production/Use of Resources .....12
11. Build More New Cities and Units ..............12
12. Start Trading as Soon as You Can .............13
13. Plan Your Future Advances/Improvements .......13
Commands and Menus .................................13
Status Window ....................................13
The City Screen ..................................13
In Depth Info and Strategy .........................16
Production and Allocation of Resources ...........16

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Usual plug-in and go stuff.

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The default controller configuration is shown here. All references to
button selection in this manual refer to the default controller

Directional Buttons
To select menu options, use the directional buttons up/down to
navigate through the menu options, highlight the desired option, and
press the (X) button to accept. However, this section defines
commands only for the standard PlayStation controller.

(T) - Cancel/Display World Map
(C) - Get Info on Terrain Squares/Scroll Info
(X) - Select Option/Validate Command
(S) - Display Menu

SELECT - Display Status Window
START - Pause

L1 - Shift to Move Pieces Mode & Highlight Active Unit on Left
L2 - Shift to View Pieces Mode & Highlight City Square on Left

R1 - Shift to Move Pieces Mode & Highlight Active Unit on Right
R2 - Shift to View Pieces Mode & Highlight City Square on Right

Game Reset
To abort a game in progress, press the Reset button on the
PlayStation. This will replay the opening animation and return to the
Civilization II title screen. (To bypass the animation, press any

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You are the ruler of a young civilization that is struggling to
survive and grow from its earliest history (4000 B.C.) onwards to the
space age (2020 A.D.). As your civilization expands, you compete with
rivals for survival and resources. Your opponents, rival
civilizations, are not always predictable, and will challenge even the
most experienced. It is up to you to choose wisely, fight bravely and
to lead your civilization to the final victory. The success of your
civilization depends upon your decisions. You are in control of the
economy, diplomacy, exploration, scientific research, and military
development of your civilization. As your civilization expands and
advances in knowledge and developments, you will be confronted with
increasingly difficult decisions: where to build other cities, what
city improvements to make, should you expand overseas, should you have
alliances with neighbors or should you pillage them? At the same
time, your world is evolving, so you'll have to change your policies
to fit the world: replace obsolete military equipment, change the
form of government, etc. Besides rival nations, you'll also encounter
other threats: internal strife, hunger, misallocation of resources,
pollution, over-population....
The Kind of victory you can achieve is up to you. You can win by the
sword and conquer the whole world; or you can win by science and be
the first to conquer space. Your final goal will determine your
strategies and decisions over time... if you last that long.


Civilization II requires a memory card to save your games. A saved
game's data takes up ten memory blocks. If you want to save a great
number of large games, you may need several memory cards. You can
obtain the memory cards through the retailer where you purchased your
PlayStation game console or this game.


There are two modes of movement:

Move Pieces Mode: Your cursor is a white arrow; you can move it to
highlight active units, which are available to take
orders, using the L1 and R1 buttons. The active
units blink when you've highlighted them.

View Pieces Mode: When you have no active units, you can still move
around the unexplored territory and make changes
on your city screen using the L1 and R1 buttons .

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The menus and the City screen (see detailed explanations for each)
will be your main tools of control. The menus on the lower left
contain all the actions that you can take. There are also dialog
boxes with options that pop up at various points in the game (when
clicking on units in the Unit Roster in the City screen, when a
foreign emissary comes to you, etc.). To bring up a menu of options
while playing, press the (S) button. You will see a menu appear on
the lower left hand side of the screen. Use the arrow keys to
highlight a desired option and then press the (X) button to select.


Always Wait at End of Turn: Guarantees that your turn will not end
until you press End Turn. If this is off
you only need to press the (X) button to
end your turn when you have no active
units left to move.

Show Enemy Moves: Makes the progress of any enemy units within
observation range of your units and cities
visible. If this is off you only see those enemy
moves which result in combat with your units.

Instant Advice: When turned on, this allows your advisors to provide
helpful hints whenever they have an opinion to offer.

Tutorial Help: When active, this option provides advice for novice

Throne Room: You will be notified of the spontaneous improvements to
your throne room when your citizens choose to offer

Diplomacy Screen: When this option is checked, diplomatic discussions
take place on the full diplomacy screen.

Town Council: A video animated town council will convene occasionally
to offer you advice.

Information for Wonders: This option allows you to view the Wonders
full screen.

Background Music: You can select the background tune between four

Background Screen: You can select the background screen you want,
from ten choices.

Change Player Name: To change your name.

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Save Game: Civilization II suggests a name for the save file, based on
the year.

Load Game: Use this option to load a game saved previously. Select
one of the files on your memory cards.

Retire: To quit the current game but see the closing display first.

Quit: Choose this option if you just want to exit the game without
all the closing displays. You have a chance to confirm or
cancel quitting.

Tax Rate: Allows you to adjust the proportion of taxes to science to
luxuries that each city generates each turn. As the
percentage of any one increases, the percentage of one or
both of the others must decrease.

View Throne Room: This option allows you to look at the status of your
throne room and see how many and what additions were
made by your citizens.

Find City: Select this to choose from a list of all your cities. the
map will center on the city you pick.

Revolution: Choose this option when you want to switch forms of
government. You must have acquired specific technological
advances to choose a type of government other than
despotism. Usually a revolution brings on a short period
of anarchy.

Town Council: Takes you to a video animated meeting of all your
advisors. In it you can ask one or all of them for
advice on your current situation.

City Status: Lists the vital statistics for all the cities in your
empire, in the order in which they were founded. You can
click on any of the listed names to open the city display
for that city.

Defense Minister: Reports on your military assets, including
information on every one of your existing units,
plus statistics on your past performance in battle
and casualties to date.

Foreign Minister: Summarizes every thing you know about the other
civilizations with whom you have made contact. If
you have an embassy in another civilization, you
will also find out how much gold they have in their
treasury Use the (X) button to select any of the
leaders to begin negotiations with that ruler
immediately. If you have established an embassy
with a particular civilization.

Check Intelligence: Opens the Intelligence Report which gives you
further details, including a complete list of
their cities and notice of which Wonders they are
attempting to build.

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Attitude Advisor: Provides a summary of the relative happiness of
your citizens, the base status of the population and
the effects of any influences which directly or
indirectly modify the happiness of your people. Use
the (X) button to select any of the City names and
to open the City Display screen.

Trade Advisor: Reports on the percentages of trade you have earmarked
for luxuries, tax revenue, and scientific research
funding in each city, as well as improvements which
require maintenance payments. If your treasury is
shrinking, this might be a good time to increase taxes
or adjust individual cities to produce higher revenue.

Science Advisor: Keeps a record of the advances your civilization has
already achieved and the progress of your scientists
toward the next advance.

Wonders of the World: Shows the icon for each wonder and identifies
both its location and the culture that currently
owns it.

Top Five Cities: Important statistics about the top five cities in
the world, including their population size and
citizens' attitudes, the culture to which they
belong, and any Wonders present.

Civilization Score: This contains your civilization score so far.

Demographics: Provides a number of real world statistics about your
civilization's health, growth, economic, and military
status, and is a good tool for comparing your
performance with your rivals'.

Spaceship: Contact your space advisors and see the progress of any
spaceship under construction.

Civilization Advances: Focuses on the advances, describing each of
them in detail.

City Improvements: Lists the structures you can build in a city to
improve how it works.

Wonders of the World: Information about the various Wonders of the

Military Units: Contains information on all units (incl. Diplomats,
Caravans, and Settlers).

Demographics: List of demographic statistics and the ranking of your
civilization for each measure mentioned. If you have
diplomatic relations with civilizations whose rank in a
particular category is higher than yours, that culture's
statistics are listed as well.

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Irrigate: Desert, Grassland, Plains, Hills, River. Only terrain
adjacent to water.

Clear: Forest, Jungle, Swamp. Improves movement point cost and
provides land suitable for further improvement.

Build Farm: Any irrigated land square. Pre-requisite is
Refrigeration. Once the Supermarket advancement is
achieved, building a farm can improve food output by

Mine: Desert, Hills, Mountains.

Reforest: Grassland, Jungle, Plains. Improves shield production
(increases movement point cost, if no road or railroad in
that square).

Clean Up: Any polluted land square. Restores full production (pre
pollution) capacity.

Build Road: Any land square. Reduces movement point cost to 1/3.

Build Railroad: Any Road square with existing roads. Increases
shield production by 50% and reduces movement point
cost to zero.

Transform: Any land square, any terrain. Only for Engineer units.

Build Airbase: Any land square. Prerequisite: Radio.
Greater flexibility in flight plans.

Build Fortress: Any land square, not a city site. Prerequisite:
Construction. Essential for defense outside cities.

There are numerous ways a player can get help in the game:

- Beginner option in the Start-up menu: This option has a built in
tutorial that offers step-by-step instructions.

- Dialog boxes with hints: Dialog boxes pop up at various times
throughout the game, hinting that a particular move or action would
be advisable at this time, or telling you the reasons why an action
can't be completed.

- Civilopedia: This contains a wealth of information on pretty much
everything in the world (civilization advances, Wonders of the
World, units, etc.).

- Status box at bottom right of the screen: This contains information
about the units or squares highlighted in the game.

- Screens following your civilization advances: They contain useful
information about the advance, prerequisites, etc.

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Below are the basic instructions to get you started in Civilization
II. For more in depth instructions on specific topics or menu
commands, please refer to the individual topics in the next section.

1. At the Civilization title screen, there are four choices: New
Game, Load Game, Beginner, Hall of Fame.

2. To start a game, select New Game. (If you want a step by step
tutorial when playing the game, select Beginner.) Before starting
to play, first you need to set up your world. The step-by-step
instructions in the dialog boxes on the screen will take you
through the set up process and will explain the various options.

You start out with a single settlers unit, surrounded by unexplored
territory. Your first task is to find a good site and build a city. To
move your settler unit, use the directional buttons to pick the
direction, then press the (X) button to select. While the unit is
active (blinking), select Build New City from the menu. Search for an
area that offers a combination of benefits: food for population
growth, raw materials for production, and river or coastal areas for
trade. Where possible, take advantage of the presence of special
resources on terrain squares. River squares are especially good sites
for cities early in the game, providing access to water for irrigation
and a defense bonus of 50% (see more detailed information in next
section). The site of the city has strategic value, for defense
purposes. Also, keep in mind the improvement potential for terrain
squares within the city's radius. Improvements are not limited to
agricultural effects. Settlers and Engineers also improve terrain by
laying roads across terrain squares. Roads allow better access to a
city and therefore increase the trade goods citizens working some
squares produce. When you finish making all your moves, your turn
ends. Each turn represents a number of years. The time intervals
between turns are first determined by the difficulty level. As you
progress through the game, turns eventually become shorter and
shorter. In the beginning, they are 20 years each, and towards the
end, they become one year per turn.

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When the city is built, you have a City screen that tells you the
available resources and serves as the main tool for managing your
city's production, population, and units. Take a little time to
familiarize yourself with it and what each of the buttons on the
bottom of the screen does (see the detailed explanation of the City
screen further on in the manual). Food and shields are the two basic
resources produced in a city. Shields represent raw materials used
for supporting units and building new items. Grain represents the
food produced. Each citizen requires two units of food each turn in
order to survive. Excess grain icons accumulate in the Food Storage
Box. Income from trade is allocated between taxes (coins), scientific
research (beakers), and luxuries (goblets).
You must consider these when managing a city: maintaining population
growth (when the food storage box is completely filled with grain, a
new person is added), maximizing a useful mix of economic development
(food, raw materials, and trade), producing tax revenue, producing
technological research, and exploration (to know what dangers are
lying around you). For cities to grow and prosper, they need to
balance economic output with the citizens' needs for infrastructure
and services. If all the citizens' needs are met, they become
contented and then happy, which reduces the chances of civil disorder.

By default, your city starts producing military units for defense
unless you choose another kind of unit in the City screen. Until you
finish building your first unit, you have little to do, besides
waiting for time to pass. Select End Turn in the main menu as many
times as required until you are notified that your first unit has
been built. Then you can go to the City screen and change production
of the unit, if you want to build a different unit. To go to the City
screen from another terrain square, shift to View Pieces mode,
position the white square cursor over the terrain square in which the
city is placed, and press the (X) button to select it (see more
information about the City screen in the next section).

There are two things you can do with your first military unit: defend
your city or explore terrain outside the city radius. It is a good
idea to keep a military unit within the city radius for defense. As
soon as the first military unit is built, you can choose to switch
production to another unit, which can be used for exploration.

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Remember that a city square will always be easier to defend than the
same unimproved terrain. Once you have the Masonry civilization
advance, you can build the City Walls improvement, which triples the
defense factors of military units stationed there.

Once you build a city. you need to choose from several types of
civilization advances from the screen that pops up: Military,
Economic, Social, Academic, and Applied. When the game begins, your
civilization has minimal knowledge, usually consisting of only
Irrigation, Mining, and roads. The bulk of your knowledge throughout
the game (Civilization Advances) is gained through research. The
amount of time required for research to achieve your Civilization
Advances depends upon the amount of science your city is currently
generating. The more beaker icons you generate each turn (see the
City Display Screen heading in the next section), the faster you can
make discoveries. The choice of advance will largely depend on your
final goal. The Advance Chart on the poster summarizes all the
civilization advances and prerequisites. You can also select
Civilization Advances in Civilopedia for more detailed information.

You can control how much trade income you spend on taxes, luxuries,
and science research in the Tax Rate window (select Kingdom in the
main menu, then Tax Rate). The maximum percentage of trade income
that can be allocated to taxes, luxuries, and science also depends
upon your type of government (for more information on governments,
select Government in the Civilopedia). To set up tax levels, select
Kingdom in the Main menu, then Tax Rate.

You need to explore the territory around you to find out what dangers
may be awaiting you, to see what natural resources are available, and
to see the extent of your neighbors' territories. In your
explorations, you may encounter small villages of Minor Tribes which
do not belong to any civilization. These Minor Tribes may give you
gold or knowledge. (For more details, see the next section.) To enter
a village or city. move your unit on the same terrain square as the
village or city.

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As you explore new territories and move units into terrain squares
adjoining the ones in which a foreign unit or city is found, you will
come into contact with other civilizations. The rival ruler will send
you an emissary, (A screen will pop up displaying the emissary and his
antechamber.) You should make efforts to maintain peaceful relations
with your neighbors. Not only does this keep your civilization
reasonably safe from attack, it can also lead to profitable exchanges
of money and information. You can see your opponent's attitude toward
you when you make contact with one another by the way they address you
and by their demands. Remember however, that your reputation is not
based on how peaceful or warlike you are towards your neighbors, but
on how often you keep your word. So it's better not to sign an
alliance or peace treaty in the first place, than to sign one and
later break it.

Your Settlers and Engineers can improve terrain by building roads and
irrigation, and by mining. Building irrigation improves the food
production and takes a bit longer than building roads.
A city can produce three different types of things: units,
improvements, and Wonders. Choose your production wisely, as there is
a significant penalty for switching production between different
types: switching from one type of production to another in mid stream
(or mid build) reduces the number of shields already accumulated by
50%. Switching production within a type from one unit to a different
unit, for instance incurs no penalty. To give orders to an active
unit, press the (S) button to display the menu and select an option by
pressing the (X) button.

You must build at least one city because only cities can produce new
units, allowing your civilization to grow and develop. The number and
size of cities you have built or captured are one measure of the
success of your civilization. Larger cities collect more taxes,
conduct more technological research, and produce new items faster.
Civilizations with small numbers of cities and small city sizes risk
being overrun by larger and more powerful neighbors. Consider the
proximity of other cities and minimize the chance that one city's

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radius (21 squares with the city at the center) overlaps another's.
To build another city, you first must build another Settler Unit,
then move it to the desired location, and order it to build a city.

The Trade Civilization advance will allow you to build trade caravans
which will trade goods between your cities and neighboring
civilizations. Lack of trade leads to stagnation, and a slow economy
means a lack of goods and services. Trade income will allow you to
increase production and undertake more scientific research.

Choose Civilization advances which will move you towards your final
goal: conquering the world or space exploration. The Advances Chart
and Civilopedia will provide the detailed information on the various
civilization advances, improvements, and prerequisites necessary for
achieving them.


This window (found at the bottom right of the screen) displays useful
information about the current terrain square where your cursor is: the
type of terrain and improvements, units present and their status, their
remaining Hit Points (HP) and moves, if they're active or not, and
what city they belong to.

You can direct the operation of each city from the City screen which
holds all the critical information concerning the city's status,
including how many shields it produces, how much food and trade income
it is generating, what it is producing; how close the item is to
completion; the happiness of the population; who is defending the
city; and what improvements you've already built.

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Shows all the existing improvements and Wonders in the city. If the
improvement is one you can sell, there is a gold icon next to the

A miniature map of the world. The city location is noted on the map,
as well as the locations of all the city's units assigned to foreign

Buy: You can speed the completion of an item by buying it outright if
you have sufficient funds in your treasury,

Change: You can use this button to switch production to another item
at any time before the production of the existing item is
completed. If you have already accumulated sufficient shields
to construct the new item, any excess is lost, and the item is
immediately completed. Otherwise, the accumulated shield
icons roll over toward the new item. Changing production
assignment often results in a significant loss of efficiency.

Resources: Shows the Resource Map and Resource Bars. You can shift
what is being produced (food, shields, or trade) by
selecting a square in that window. This, in turn, will
convert your citizens into specialists (Entertainer,
Taxman, or Scientist). To do this, move the cursor over
the desired terrain square and press (X) to convert. To
further convert Entertainers, move your cursor to the
population roster and press (X) to convert.

Unit Roster: Shows all of the units that call this city home and
their status. Clicking on any unit will give you these
options: No Changes, Center Map on Unit, Center Map on
Unit and Close City Screen, Order Unit to Return Home,
Disband Unit.

Happiness Chart: The first row shows the natural happiness of a
city's population before any adjustments. The
second row shows the effect luxuries have on the
population. Every two units of luxuries make one
contented person happy or one unhappy person
content. The third row adds in the benefits of city
improvements like Temples, Cathedrals, and
Coliseums. The fourth row adds in the effects of
martial law and troops stationed in the city. The
fifth row, on the bottom, adds in the effects of any
Wonders of the World, whether in this city or
elsewhere. This row reflects the attitudes shown in
the population roster, since all the adjustments
have been factored in.

Rename: If you wish to rename a city (especially if you conquered it
from another tribe and want it to reflect your civilization).

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View: You can get a close-up view of your city and all of its

Exit: Takes you back to the Terrain Map, out of the City screen.

Each citizen icon in the population roster represents one population
point (which represents a different number of citizens, as the game
progresses). Specialists consume food like other citizens, but no
longer directly contribute to the resources a city generates. There
are three types of Specialists: Entertainers, Scientists, and Taxmen.
Cities must have a population base of five or more to support Taxmen
or Scientists. Citizens removed from the work force immediately
become Entertainers, each of which adds 2 luxury icons to the tally in
the resource bars, and making more citizens happy. Each taxman adds
three tax icons to the resource bar. No tax collection is made if a
city is in civil disorder. Creating a scientist adds three science
icons to the total in the apportionment bar. Universities and
libraries are not included in this initial calculation.

Any surplus food generated by your city each turn accumulates in this
box. The capacity of the box expands as the city's population
increases. If one of your cities is not producing enough food to feed
its population, the shortage is subtracted from the reserve in the
food storage box. If the box is empty and the city still has a
shortfall, supported units are disbanded, one by one. The granary
improvement has the effect of speeding population growth. When a city
has a granary, the food storage box only half empties when it
overflows, only to the granary line.

Resource bars compile all the resources generated by the city's
workers each turn within the squares of the city radius.

Food: The state and disbursement of the city's food harvest each

Trade: The total trade goods produced and the disbursement of the
city's trade income each turn, into taxes (coins), luxuries
(goblets), and research funding (beakers). These numbers
depend on your trade rates.

Shields: Depending on the form of government, some of the shield
icons will be required to support the units built by the
city. Support

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requirements are on the left side of the bar. If the city's
industrial capacity is not sufficient to maintain the existing units,
the shortage is indicated. If your turn ends and there's a shortage,
enough units are disbanded to make up the difference, beginning with
the ones farthest from the city.

Any production generated by your city each turn accumulates in this
box. The capacity changes to reflect the cost of the unit,
improvement, or Wonder currently under construction. When the box is
full, the item is complete. Most squares produce a combination of
several resources. Selecting any square under production (except the
city square, which remains permanently under production) temporarily
takes that citizen off work. Select an unoccupied square to put the
citizen back to work in a new place.


When a city produces more food than its population and units consume
each turn, the excess accumulates in the Food Storage Box. When the
box is full, another citizen is added to the population roster.
If your city is not producing enough food each turn to feed its
population, the shortfall is noted, and stores are removed from the
food storage box. If the box empties, any units that require food for
support are disbanded, one by one, until a balance is achieved.
Shields power your industrial capacity and support the city's units.
When a city produces more shields than your units expend each turn,
the excess shields accumulate in the Production box. When the box is
full, your city produces one of three kinds of things: units which
move around the map, city improvements which are tied to specific
cities, and wonders of the world, which give unique benefits to the
civilization that builds them. If your city runs short of the raw
materials it requires each turn, one or more units supported will be
forced to disband, starting with the ones farthest from home.
Several factors influence a city's production of shields: The terrain
within your city radius is most important, as citizens working on some
types of terrain produce no shields at all. The form of government
and the size of your empire can also cause each city to spend some of
its raw materials as maintenance for the military units belonging to
the city. In fringe locations, some proportion of the shields that
workers generate each turn is lost as waste.
Here are some strategies for maximizing productivity: shift citizens
working on the resource map so that they can produce more shields;

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use Settlers or Engineers to improve a terrain square within the city
radius to yield more shields; order Settlers units to build a new city
(they'll no longer draw support from the city); or reassign units so
that they are attached to a different city. Several wonders and
improvements can also increase shield output (check the Civilopedia
and the poster).

Caravan units represent shipments of trade goods and materials. Once
your civilization has discovered the Corporation, the Freight unit
replaces the Caravan unit on the Production menu. Freight units have
two movement points a turn.
A Caravan or Freight unit can establish a trade route by entering any
city. Each city can operate up to three separate trade routes. Trade
routes also give the Caravan's home city a cash and science bonus on
the turn when the route is established. A fourth and always available
option for trade goods is food. You can transfer one food per turn to
another city by sending a load of food from a city with a surplus to a
city that needs help. A needy city can be on the receiving end of
more than one food route. Once a food route is established, it cannot
be countermanded. It is automatically cancelled, however, if the
sending city runs out of food for its own people.
The percentage of your trade that is converted into tax revenue, or
gold icons, is determined by the tax rate you set. Trade routes
increase the amount of trade goods generated in both their home city
and the city with which the trade route is established. You get both
the trade increase and a cash and science bonus no matter what your
Caravan carries. The amount of trade generated by a trade route
depends greatly on supply and demand, and partly on the size of the
two cities. Bigger cities generate more trade. Trade with a city
from another civilization is of greater value than trade with friendly
cities, and the father apart the two cities are, the greater the bonus
for trading between them.

Each civilization's units carry a different color shield. Units
carrying red shields are always barbarians. Each unit has statistics
for attack strength, defense strength, and movement points. Every
unit has an observation factor (can only "see" units and objects on
the edges of the terrain squares directly adjacent to their own). Hit
points indicate how much damage a unit can with stand before it is
destroyed (the greater the number of hit points, the more damage the
unit can absorb in combat). The strength bar at the top of a unit's
shield indicates how many hit points that unit currently has, both by

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its length and by its color. As a unit loses hit points in an attack,
its strength bar gets shorter. In addition, when the unit is reduced
to approximately two thirds of its full strength, the strength bar
changes from green to yellow; when a unit's hit points are reduced to
around one-third of its full strength, the bar changes from yellow to
red. Firepower indicates how much damage a unit can inflict in a
round of combat.
A damaged unit can partially restore itself by skipping its ENTIRE
turn. Units repair faster when they remain in cities for a full
turn. If the city has certain improvements (i.e. Barracks, Port
Facility, Airport) the damaged unit is restored to full strength in a
single turn. Fortified and sleeping units remain inactive until you
change their status at the City screen. If you want them to move or
change position, you must activate them first.

- Air Units
The observation range of air units is two terrain squares (except for
missiles). Most need to land in friendly city with an airport,
Airbase, or Carrier unit, and are limited to attacking only once per

- Naval Units
Some have the capacity to carry passengers (ground units): triremes,
caravels, galleons, frigates, and transports. Carriers can only
transport air units. Most naval units can conduct shore bombardments
attack units standing on the coastal squares of continents and
islands. Naval units can defend the cities they occupy against
attack, though their firepower is reduced to one because of their
limited maneuverability.

You can move (or order) your units when they're in Move Pieces mode:
the active unit blinks, and you can use the arrow buttons and the (C)
button to move it across the map. You are automatically placed in
Move Pieces mode at the beginning of each turn, and are automatically
switched to View Pieces mode at the end of your turn. Each terrain
type has its own movement point cost. Units can generally move up to
the limit of their movement factors . A unit can always move at least
one square in a turn, regardless of the movement point cost of the
terrain. Any terrain square with a road across it costs just one
third of a movement point to cross. A railroad reduces this cost to
zero. Cities automatically have roads in their city squares, so
entering a city square always costs one-third of a movement point.
Once your civilization discovers the Railroad advance, city squares
are automatically upgraded to railroads, so your units can slide
through them for free.

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To send a unit on a long trek, you have two options: either by using
the Return to City command, or by using the Go To option. Once a
destination city is selected from the list, the unit automatically
goes to that square, whether it takes only one turn to complete its
orders, or many turns. If the unit is attacked, or an obstruction
prevents the unit from completing its journey, it becomes active once
again. Ground units cannot travel between continents on a Go To
Ground units normally move only on land. To traverse the wide oceans,
or even get across lakes, they must board naval transport. Air units
must land in a friendly city. at an Airbase, or on a Carrier unit to
refuel every turn or two. To avoid attracting rival units by accident,
carefully guide your planes around them. You can make a paradrop (of
paratroopers) in any land square within ten of the origination square
not occupied by enemy troops. Once you have two or more Airports, you
can airlift one unit per turn into or out of each Airport. Ships
cannot navigate rivers, deltas, or swamps in the game. City squares
that touch a shoreline along one side or at one corner are the only
"land" squares that ships can enter - here they make port. Making
port costs one movement point. Sailing experience accumulates with
new advances: once your civilization discovers Seafaring, your crews
get lost at sea only 25% of the time; and once you discover
Navigation, the likelihood of their loss is reduced to one in eight.

- Zones of Control
Neither ground troops nor Settlers units can move directly from one
rival's zone of control into another square within a rival's zone of
control, unless they have an alliance with the rival player or if a
friendly unit or city occupies that square. Rival units and cities
have a "zone of control" which extends into eight squares that
immediately surround them. Air units have the whole sky in which to
maneuver; naval units have the open sea. Diplomats and Spies can
enter the zone of control, as well as Freight and Caravan units.
Partisans can also enter zones of control, and Explorers also.
Engineers can also infiltrate and bypass enemy positions.

Keeping a city's population growing is important because each
additional citizen contributes something to your civilization; each
one brings a new terrain square under production in your city radius
until there are no empty squares to work, after which he becomes a
specialist. When you start building cities, you start with content
citizens. The type of government your civilization develops and the
level of difficulty at which you choose to play affects the happiness
of your citizens.

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You can increase the happiness of your citizens several different
ways: building specific city improvements (i.e. Temples and
Marketplaces), reassigning military units, adjusting tax rates, and
pulling citizens off production work to make them specialists.
Luxuries make your population happier - every two goblets make one
contented citizen happy.
If a city's population becomes sufficiently happy, it will
spontaneously hold a celebration in honor of your rule, and declare a
"We Love (the leader, you) Day." For this to happen, there can be no
unhappy citizens in the city. There must be at least as many happy
citizens as content citizens, and the population roster must have at
least three citizens. Specialists are included in this calculation.

Once you have discovered a new form of government, you can choose to
sponsor a revolution in order to change government types. Anarchy, or
the lack of government, occurs only when you lose control, either
because civil unrest topples your current government, or immediately
following a revolution.
The governments you can choose in Civilization are as follows:
Anarchy, Despotism, Monarchy, Republic, Communism, Fundamentalism,
Democracy, (The Civilopedia contains detailed information on each form
of Government.)

Establishing embassies in your rivals' cities allows you to increase
your negotiating power. If you are the largest, most powerful, and
richest civilization in the world, all rivals are likely to be very
demanding or antagonistic. Leaders with whom you are allied tend to
become jealous as your civilization grows larger and more powerful.
An emissary's body language and way of addressing you can give you a
hint of the rival leader's attitude towards you.
Whenever one of your Diplomats or Spies successfully steals
technology, sabotages a city improvement, poisons the water supply, or
incites a revolt in a city of a civilization with which you have
signed a treaty, an international incident almost inevitably occurs.
Your victim is likely to treat your treachery as an act of war, and
there might be domestic repercussions also, if your government is a
republic or democracy. Incidents are bound to occur, unless you are
already at war with your victim and the Diplomat or Spy failed their

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- Your Reputation
Rumors of your past transgressions will precede you! Breaking a
treaty or an alliance carries a slight but permanent diplomatic
penalty in all future negotiations with other players. Your
reputation matters on the domestic front also. When you choose to
govern your civilization as a Republic or Democracy, your Senate pays
careful attention to your conduct in foreign affairs. The more
treaties you break, the less other players trust you. If you break
treaties systematically, the other players learn from their mistakes
and become as ruthless as you. If you have an excuse for breaking a
treaty, the diplomatic penalty is eliminated or reduced. Since
keeping your word is more important than behaving peaceably, refusing
to sign a peace treaty or opting for a temporary cease-fire instead
are honorable alternatives. You can still maintain a spotless
reputation by waging war or by pursuing conquest.

- Bribing an Enemy Unit
You might convince an enemy unit to defect and join your civilization
by moving the Diplomat or Spy into a square occupied by a single
enemy unit. The farther a unit is from its capital, the less gold is
required. If you accept, the gold is deducted from your treasury and
the army switches sides (becomes your color) . The Diplomat or Spy
survives the discussion, regardless of the mission's success.
Diplomats and spies can bribe naval and air units as long as these
are not stacked with other units. Your nearest city becomes the home
for a newly-bribed unit.

- Stealing Technology
A Diplomat can steal one advance per city, but a Spy can make more
than one attempt per city to steal an advance (her chance of capture
increases with every additional mission). If he succeeds, a Diplomat
disappears in the process; but if the Spy succeeds, she returns to
the closest friendly city and is promoted to veteran status for her
work. Diplomats and Spies stationed in your cities can also reduce
enemy attempts to steal technology: Spies have a 40% chance of doing
this, and veteran Spies have a 60% chance.

- Gathering Intelligence
Your Diplomat or Spy unit establishes official contact with the rival
civilization, setting up an office in the city to which you sent him
or her. There is no possibility of international embarrassment or
detection. Your Diplomat/Spy unit gathers information about the rival
city's production and development (shows you the enemy's city
display). You can access information about your rival's type of

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government, treasury, number of armies, the name of its capital city,
treaties with other civilizations, diplomatic states, and
technological advances whenever you look at your Foreign Minister's

- Industrial Sabotage
Your Diplomat destroys either whatever item the rival city currently
has under production, or one of the rival city's existing
improvements the item targeted is a matter of random chance. Your
Spy, however, will choose a specific target from that city's existing
improvements. If your envoy destroys a critical improvement, it might
throw the city into unrest, weaken its defenses, or cut its
production. Diplomats and Spies never destroy Wonders of the World.

- Inciting a Revolt
The amount of time needed to finance a revolt depends upon the size
of the city and its proximity to the enemy civilization's capital. If
you wish to avoid an international incident, you must subvert the
city by paying double the listed amount. Enemy capitals, and cities
in a Democracy, never agree to revolt. Cities with courthouses cost
twice as much to bribe, and cities under Communism tend to remain
expensive to bribe. Also, it costs less to incite a revolt in a city
already in civil disorder than in a contented city. A diplomat is
lost in a successful revolt, but a spy returns to the closest
friendly city. If successful, all units within one square of the
revolting city belonging to that rival civilization also revolt and
join your regime.

- Poisoning the Water Supply
Only spies can attempt to weaken the resistance of a rival city by
poisoning the water supply. If successful, the target city's
population is reduced by one point.

- Planting a Nuclear Device
Only spies can attempt to plant nuclear devices in rival cities.
This is the most difficult mission to accomplish, and the likelihood
of capture is high. If the spy is caught red-handed, every
civilization in the world will declare war on you, appalled by your

When civilization advances make available new army types with better
defense factors, take the first opportunity to replace old defenders
with better units. Since the offensive capability of your enemies
improves as they acquire new advances, your defenses must improve to
keep up.

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Most battles result in the destruction of one army or the other.
Important factors to consider in combat are: the attack and defense
strengths of the combatants as well as their hit points and firepower;
the presence of veteran units on either side (veteran units have 50%
more attack and defense power than normal units); the terrain occupied
by the defender; and any defensive improvements in the square. When
more than one unit occupies the defender's square, the unit with the
highest defensive strength defends. If that unit loses, then all
other armies stacked with it are destroyed as well. Stacked units
taking advantage of Fortress improvements or taking cover in the city
squares are destroyed one at a time.
In addition to losing strength, damaged units also lose mobility. If
the damaged unit normally had three movement points, damage of 30%
would reduce its movement to two movement points. Naval units are
never reduced below two movement points per turn, and air units do not
suffer reduced movement at all.

- Air Battles
Only fighters and stealth fighters can attack bomber or stealth
bomber units. A fighter or stealth bomber stationed in a city
increases the defense factor of the defending units by four when they
are attacked from the air. When an aegis cruiser is attacked by air
units, it gains defense bonuses: the defense factor is tripled
against plane or helicopter attacks, and it is increased five times
against missile attacks.

- Ground Battles
A successful ground attack on a city destroys only one defending unit
at a time. However, each successful attack also reduces the
population of the city by one point unless the city is protected by
these improvements: the City Walls triples the defense strength of
units within them against all ground units except howitzers, and
protects a city's population from reduction; the SAM missile battery
doubles the defense strength of all units within the city against all
air units except Nuclear missiles; a Fortress doubles a unit's
defensive strength, and allows stacked units to be destroyed one at a

- Nuclear Attacks
Nuclear attacks occur when a nuclear unit attempts to enter a square
occupied by enemy units or an enemy city. A spy unit can make a
suicide bomber attack by smuggling a Nuclear unit into an enemy city.
regardless of the presence of an SDI Defense city improvement (which
extends three squares from a city in any direction and protects the
city and all the units and improvements within this radius from all
effects of a direct Nuclear missile attack).

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When air units or ground units attack ships in port, the attackers'
firepower is doubled against the defending units and the defender's
firepower is reduced to one. Air units also pick off city defenders
one at a time, except for Nuclear missiles.

Upon coming into contact with a minor tribe in a village, they may
share an Advance, give you gold, add their military units to your own,
or join your cities. You may also be surprised by a barbarian attack
or find the village deserted.

Linking cities with roads and railroads can be very helpful in
speeding the movement of units from one end of your empire to trouble
spots elsewhere. Most improvements don't disappear over time, but
they can be vulnerable to capture, fire, and sabotage. If you're
really strapped for cash, you can even sell a city's improvements.
If you have the funds, you can rush completion of a partially built
item by paying a premium price, in cash. The rush cost can be up to
eight times as much gold as the normal accumulation of shield icons,
depending on the proportion of the work already completed and whether
the job is civil, or military, or a wonder.

The game counts philosophical concepts and theories, as well as new
government types as "new technologies." Advances are divided into five
broad categories: Military, Economic, Social, Academic, and Applied.
The scientific research performed in each city you own is totalled in
the Science Advisor's Report.
The greater the research contribution each city makes toward new
civilization advances, the faster your people discover each new
advance. Improvements that can help are the Library, University, and
Research Lab which all increase research, and several Wonders. The
science (beaker icons) each city generates every turn represents a
percentage of the total trade income allocated to research. You can
increase the allocation to research in the Tax Rate option in the
Kingdom menu. Once you have chosen a direction for your research, you
cannot change your mind. Your scientists pursue that topic until they
learn the new civilization advance. Contact with a minor tribe might
also bring a new civilization advance.

A wonder of the world is a dramatic, awe-inspiring accomplishment. It
is typically a great achievement of engineering, science, or the arts,
representing a milestone in the history of humankind. Twenty-eight

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Wonders are included in Civilization II, seven each representing the
four great epochs of civilization: the Ancient World, the Renaissance
(including the High Middle Ages), the Industrial Revolution, and the
Modern World (present and future). Each Wonder exists only in the
city where it is constructed. Wonders can be built in any city and
more than one may be built in the same city. If the city is captured
by a rival power, the wonder is also seized. If a wonder is destroyed
along with a city, it can never be rebuilt. The achievement of later
advances can negate the benefits of older Wonders, regardless of which
civilization discovers the cancelling advance.
You can build a Wonder if it does not already exist somewhere else in
the world. If you are building a Wonder in one of your cities and the
same Wonder is completed elsewhere before you finish, you must convert
your production to something else. If you want to accomplish
construction of a wonder faster than the city that is building it can
generate shields, you have several options: divert trade goods into
the Wonder's coffers by moving a Caravan or Freight unit into the city
of construction and accepting the choice Help Build Wonder; spend
cash directly from your treasury; or disband troops currently in the
city that is constructing the wonder (each disbanded unit contributes
shields equal to one half its construction cost directly to the
Resource box).

Manipulating terrain to produce the maximum number of shields has a
negative side effect: gradual polluting and poisoning of the
environment. Every turn, the game assigns a probability of pollution
occurring within the economic radius of each city, which is determined
by the number of shields produced (industrial pollution) and the
population supported (smog). Pollution (represented by a skull on the
terrain square in which it occurs) reduces the production of food, raw
materials, and trade to one half of pre pollution levels. Unchecked
pollution significantly raises the risk of global warming, which will
occur at any time when at least nine map squares, anywhere in the
world, are polluted. Smokestacks begin appearing on the City Display
Screen when the combined pressures of smog and industrial pollution
pose a significant threat of contamination. The exact proportion of
smokestacks produced by industrial pollution and smog depends on the
difficulty level at which you set the game.
Polluted terrain can be detoxified by any Settlers or Engineer unit,
and takes four turns (two for the Engineer). Certain city
improvements can also help the situation. A Nuclear Power Plant,
Hydro Power Plant, Solar Plant, or Recycling Center improvement in a
city reduces the impact of industrial pollution, in turn decreasing
the accumulation of smokestacks.

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The history of your civilization ends when either you or one of your
rivals reaches a nearby star system with colonists. If your spaceship
is the first to arrive, you receive a bonus to your civilization score
in recognition of this final accomplishment. If a rival makes
planetfall first, you receive no bonus.
No civilization can undertake spaceship component construction until
the Apollo Program Wonder is built. Thereafter, any civilization that
has acquired the necessary advances can begin building the parts of a
spaceship. Each civilization can build only one spaceship at a time,
and cannot build a second, back-up ship once the first is launched.
Once launched, ships cannot be recalled or turned around. Your
spaceship is made out of three types of parts: components, modules,
structural support. You must achieve a new civilization advance to
make each type of part available for construction. Though you can
construct parts in any order, and most likely will have multiple parts
under production simultaneously, all modules and components must
eventually be connected to structural parts if you want them to
function. For more details on the components, check the Civilopedia.

- Spaceship Display Screen
As each new component is completed, the Spaceship display appears,
showing where the component is positioned and updating the statistics
and specifications.

Population - Number of pioneers the spaceship is outfitted to carry.

Support - Percentage of accommodations on the ship currently serviced
by life support: air, nutrient, and waste systems.

Energy - Percentage of energy required by habitation and life support
modules currently provided.

Mass - The greater the mass of your components, modules, and
structures, the more power is required from propulsion parts
to move it.

Fuel - What percentage of the fuel your propulsion units require is
currently aboard.

Flight Time - Number of years required for your spaceship to reach
the nearest star, based on the ship's current mass
and engine power

Probability of Success - All the other data including the amount of
food and energy available and the estimated
flight time, in an estimate of the
approximate percentage of colonists who are
expected to survive the voyage.

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Launch - To send your spaceship on its voyage, click on the Launch
button. Once launched, you cannot retrieve a spaceship. To
quit the Display screen and return to the game, click on the
OK button.

If at any time you control the only settled civilization, you win, and
the End Game sequence proclaims you the ruler of the world. However,
if you vanquish other civilizations early enough in the game, some new
tribe might develop a Settlers unit and found a civilization using the
color originally assigned to the vanished culture.

Throne Room - As your civilization achieves certain milestones, your
citizens spontaneously show their approval, first by
building and subsequently by offering to make additions
to your throne room.

Demographics - Provides a number of real-world statistics about your
civilization's health, growth, economic, and military
status, and is a good tool for comparing your
performance with your rivals'.

Civilization Score - This keeps a running total of the points you've
earned for population size and various
achievements, as well as a total of the
penalties. When you reach the end of the game
(in 2020 AD) this total becomes the basis of your
score. However, the level of barbarian
aggression you chose affects the final tally (-50
points for the lowest level of activity, -25 for
the next highest, no change for the normal level,
+50 points for the highest level).

If you conquer the world before the last year of the game, you get an
alternate score based on the number of rivals you eliminated and the
speed with which you moved. If you successfully settle the stars, you
earn a bonus based on the number of colonists to reach Alpha Centauri.
This bonus is added to your running total score.